Nine general realms of engagement can be considered to improve port resilience to a wide range of disruptions (Figure 33).
Figure 33: Key mitigation and response measures to port disruptions
From a managerial perspective, port resilience mitigation comes in two categories; those related to port risk management (pre-event) and those related to port disruption/crisis management (post-event) (figure 34).
Figure 34: Proactive and reactive approaches to port risk mitigation and resilience-building
Source: Adapted from the Institute of Risk Management (2020).