To avoid industrial accidents, regulations covering hazardous materials need to be rigorously enforced. However, industrial accidents often occur not because regulations are not followed but because authorities are unaware of the nature, extent and conditions in which hazardous materials are stored within port facilities. Therefore, such regulations cannot be effective without a reporting and accounting system.

Cyber-resilience represents a separate category of mitigation strategies due to the unique nature of the potential disruption, affecting the IT layer of port management and operations (Box 4). Information technologies and related security risks raise significant risks for ports and their partners in the logistics chain, particularly as they have extensive exposure to these technologies and have increasingly moving towards digitalization.

Figure 36: Cyber-resiliency measures for information technologies

Cyber-resiliency measures for information technologies

Source: Adapted from IAPH (2021).